A biocomputer (also a biological computer, a molecular computer) is a computer that functions like a living organism or contains biological components. The creation of biocomputers is based on the direction of molecular computing. Proteins and nucleic acids that react with each other are used as computational elements.

We can say that molecular computers are molecules programmed with desired properties and behavior. Molecular computers are composed of networked nano-computers. In the operation of a conventional microcircuit, individual molecules are used as elements of the computational path.

Also, the frequent use of biocomputers was widespread in the scientific fantasy literature.

In particular, a molecular computer can represent logical electrical circuits composed of individual molecules; transistors controlled by one molecule, etc. In a memory microcircuit, information is recorded using the position of molecules and atoms in space.